LMI platform objective

This labor market information platform includes information about labor market, employment and labor market initiatives. It comes as an initiative of the of Workforce Improvement and Skills Enhancement (WISE) project, the Enabling Environment Unit (EEU), and the Egyptian National Competitiveness Council in the framework of increasing the efficiency of the Egyptian labor market. The platform aims to better inform the stakeholders of the labor market in order to achieve a balance between supply and demand in the labor market.
This platform is specialized to cover news of the Egyptian labor market, the latest and most important initiatives that have been executed within the framework of youth employment. The platform also covers government and private sector initiatives and training centers, the most important statistical data and the most important stakeholders in the Egyptian labor market. Also it’s enriched by many important studies that researchers can benefit from. We seek to make this platform as a nucleus of information for researchers regarding labor market news.

Background on the Enabling Environment Unit (EEU)

The Egyptian National Competitiveness Council has published a study entitled “Labor Skills, Productivity, and Human Resources Management Study”, prepared in cooperation with the Egyptian Center for Public Opinion Research (Basira) with the support of Workforce Improvement and Skills Enhancement Project (WISE) funded by USAID-. The study tried to evaluate the efficiency and flexibility of the Egyptian labor market and the ability of its institutions to formulate and implement policies that achieve economic growth and competitiveness objectives and development plans equally, by aligning the needs of the labor market with the technical skills of Egyptian workers in sectors capable of supporting the Egyptian economy in a number of governorates. Seven economic sectors, including furniture, food, garment, textile, renewable energy, tourism and logistics, were selected across 11 governorates: Alexandria, Port Said, Ismailia, Aswan, Red Sea and Sharqia. Menoufia, Gharbia, Damietta, Fayoum, Beni Suef.
An important part of the study has been devoted to the opinion of employers Business owners and therefore offers practical proposals based on evidence from the reality of the labor market. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, a methodology has been adopted that includes the selection of sectors and governorates. Low productivity and human resources management, as well as bottlenecks experienced by private sector companies in the governorates of the Republic and targeted economic areas. In order to identify the most important procedures and regulatory frameworks in the labor market that require intervention to improve them, and to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of the Egyptian labor market, as well as identify professional competencies that meet the needs of the business sector in various economic fields and governorates. The quantitative tools included questionnaires for employers, employees in 157 SMEs, 1273 telephone calls with female and male technical and vocational education graduates, and interviews of 21 experienced stakeholders.
The study came up with a lot of important findings and recommendations on the requirements of developing the skills of the Egyptian workers and empowering them, related to the issues related to skills in the Egyptian labor market, and the associated features and main characteristics of the national workforce, which is the main objective of the study. In addition, its findings showed strong indications of the importance of factors related to the business climate in the field of raising the efficiency of the Egyptian labor market, which are not directly related to the fundamental issue under study, led by those related to policies and institutional aspects, employment services, and the development of value chains.
In order to ensure the sustainability of working on the study’s recommendations, the EEAG was established to exchange experiences with all stakeholders and identify priorities to move forward with the required reforms in order to provide an enabling environment to raise the efficiency of the labor market. A new unit has been formed within the organizational structure of the Egyptian National Competitiveness Council is the Enabling Environment Unit (EEU), acts as the group’s executive tool, organize all workshops, prepare position papers, and forming a database include all acting authorities in labor market, and labor market development research links in Egypt. All these activities support Workforce Improvement and Skills Enhancement Project (WISE) funded by USAID.

Activities of the Enabling Environment Unit of the Egyptian National Competitiveness Council in cooperation with Workforce Improvement and Skills Enhancement (WISE) Project

•Consultative session and Workshops within the framework of a series of consultations on the position papers issued by the Egyptian National Competitiveness Council to support Egyptian labor market reforms.
• A consultative session to discuss a position paper towards effective policies to raise the rates of formal employment by merging the informal sector facilities to the formal sector, at the headquarters of the Federation of Egyptian Industries on May 15, 2019, and the session was attended by Dr. Hossam Badrawy, Honorary Chair of the Egyptian National Competitiveness Council, and Dr. Manal Maher, a member of the Egyptian Parliament, and d. Khaled Abdel Azim, CEO of the Federation of Egyptian Industries, and representatives from the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Industrial Development Authority, the General Authority for Taxes, the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency, the United States Agency for International Development, and a group of informal business owners.
• A consultative session on May 12, 2019, to discuss the position paper to encourage female integration in the labor market. The session was attended by representatives from the government sector headed by the National Council for Women, the Egyptian Ministry of Manpower, the Ministry of Finance, TVET and representatives from the private sector led by the Federation of Egyptian Industries, Al Arabi Group and development partners are represented by the United States Agency for International Development.
• Two consultative sessions to discuss the development of Dual Technical Education Programs in Egypt on March 28, 2019 and on April 22, 2019, and the session was attended by Dr. Hossam Badrawi, Honorary President of the Egyptian National Competitiveness Council, was also attended by representatives from the government sector led by the president of Technical Education sector, TVET, representatives from the private sector, and representatives from the United States Agency for International Development.
• Training: within the framework of supporting the members participating in the EEAG advisory committee, The National Competitiveness Council, in cooperation with the Egyptian Workforce Development and Skills Enhancement Project (WISE), has trained a number of representatives of the advisory committee members on the scientific foundations to support and advocate reforms and how to identify the parties concerned and activate participation with them.

Related Laws

Statistics and indicators

• Analysis of unemployment in Egypt over the past 10 years:
– The reason for the aggravation of the unemployment problem in Egypt is due to structural reasons due to the nature of the Egyptian economy as a developing economy that suffers from internal and external structural imbalances, represented by the imbalance in the balance of payments and the imbalance in the state budget, along with a large gap between both savings and investment and thus production and consumption, In addition to the low participation of women in work, unemployment and high rates of informalization, in addition to the high rate of unemployment among young adults 18-29 years.
– Females, newcomers, and highly educated youth are the groups most affected by unemployment, and the largest proportion of unemployed youth who have reached university education or above, followed by graduates of technical education and vocational training. (2017,Iman Abdel Fattah Helmy)
– There are several reasons for youth unemployment, including a labor market characterized by limited mobility and strict regulations as well as insufficient demand for employment. On the supply side, possible causes include low quality of education due to lack of qualifications in addition to old curricula, and incompatibility between work skills and those Requested by employers. (2017, Iman Abdel Fattah Helmy)
– The unemployment rate decreased from previous years, reaching 7.5% in the second quarter of 2019 compared to 9.9% in the second quarter of 2018 (Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics)
– The number of the unemployed reached 3 million and 94 thousand in the first quarter of the year, a decrease of 409 thousand from the corresponding quarter of last year.
– Unemployed people between 15 and 19 years old constitute about 7.3% of the total unemployed. (Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics- the second quarter of 2019)
– Unemployed people in the age group (20-24 years) are about 40.4%, and in the age group (24-29 years) it is about 36.9 % (Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics- the second quarter of 2019)
Characteristics of the Egyptian labor market

Egyptian Labor force:
According to the data of the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, and the World Bank, we find that the total workforce in Egypt is 28.40 million individuals in 2019.
Labor Force according to age, gender and level of education in Egypt
– The share of the female workforce in the second quarter of 2019 was 15.8% of the total workforce, compared to the male workforce making up 68.6% of the total male workforce. (Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics)
– There is a direct relationship between the level of education and participation in the workforce in particular on the part of females, where we find an increase in participation on the part of both females and males in the workforce with a university or above university degree.
– The lower levels of education came to preclude more female participation in the workforce clearly, as the contribution of females with basic education did not exceed 5% in 2016 of the workforce, compared to 44.6% the percentage of male participation, as this percentage reached 18.2% of Females with less than basic education, compared to 90%, is the participation rate of males with less than basic education in the workforce. (Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics)

Success Stories around the world


A driving force behind Korea’s rapid economic development was its human resources. As Korea underwent industrialization, vocational education and training played an integral role in providing the necessary skilled workforce at the right time. One thing that sets Korea’s vocational education and training system apart from those of other countries is that vocational education and vocational training are administrated by different government ministries. Vocational education system is administered by the Ministry of Education and vocational training system is managed by the Ministry of Employment and Labor. Since the vocational education within the school system alone could not produce all the technical manpower required in the early stages of industrialization, the Korean government directly intervened with the labor market and took the lead in training manpower. (UNESCO, TVET Country Profiles, Republic of Korea, November 2018)
In the 1970s the government made businesses of certain employment capacities to undertake in plant vocational training (those who did not implement vocational training were required to pay a share of expenses), and with the introduction of the Employment Insurance Act in 1995 vocational training system was included in the framework of the employment insurance system. In 1999, the government’s role changed from serving as regulation authorities to supporting business to train manpower. In 2004, the Vocational Training Promotion Act was completely revised to the Workers’ Vocational Competency Development Act, which was an attempt to reform Korea’s vocational training system into improving competency for the employed and autonomous training system of the companies centered on demanders, and to establish a foundation for life-long vocational competency development for workers. (Josh Hawley, Public Private Partnerships in Vocational Education and Training: International Examples and Models)
Since the 1980s, the rapid increase in university-level education has created a mismatch between the industry demand and supply of manpower, and in recent years, this chronic issue is hindering economic growth through youth unemployment and labor shortage in small and medium-sized enterprises. Korea is now making various attempts to resolve these issues. (Young-bum Park, The Present and Future of Vocational Competency Development Training in Korea, 2017)
The Korean TVET system is mainly administered by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Employment and Labour: the former takes charge of initial education, mainly general education oriented toward higher education, while the latter deals with continuing education and training for which labour market entry is of primary interest. In terms of educational tracking, there is no early tracking occurring up to the age of 15 when students finish lower secondary education, which is mandatory in Korea. At the upper secondary level, general education is delivered at general high schools and special-purpose high schools that teach special courses such as foreign languages, arts, sports, and science. Vocational education schools include Meister high schools and specialized high schools
The Korean TVET consists of two pillars: vocational education and vocational training. For the vocational education, vocational high schools, junior vocational colleges, open universities, and lifelong education institutions are main providers, while vocational skills training facilities, polytechnic colleges, and other institutions provide vocational training programs of various sorts and duration. In addition, in-plant institutions and other authorized vocational institutions cover a significant portion of programs. However, the distinction between vocational education and training have become blurred, as the locus, orientation, and targets of the two streams of VET provision are converging gradually, which calls for new career pathways for students at various stages of learning. (Choi, Y. Current Situations and Challenges for Regional Local Tailored Human Resources Development Projects, 2015)
The Korean TVET system has for many years developed as a government-led, supply-driven model, which yields complications and overlaps in terms of training delivery, implementation, and performance management. To overcome this stalemate, the government has begun to streamline the TVET system. This refinement includes the simplification of TVET implementation procedures by reshaping TVET programs into competency-based TVET programs by training courses. Employment services and other assistance for job training participants have also been strengthened via increased investment in the delivery system, counselling services for TVET, and labour market intelligence systems such as HRD-Net. To secure quality TVET programs, the review process of vocational training has also been simplified by level of competencies and occupations, and the tasks have been delegated to the newly established agency: the Korean Skills Quality Authority (KSQA hereafter).
The review process of vocational training programs for the unemployed has been integrated in order to improve efficiency and to relieve stakeholders of administrative burdens. The process consists of three steps: first, the KSQA, which is in charge of reviewing training programs and quality assurance, conducts reviews of basic requirements in terms of the eligibility of training organizations, basic requirements for program components (hours/duration/facilities of training), requirements of NCS application (no less than 40% of training hours be placed for NCS based programs). Once this step is passed, training programs are then reviewed in regard to program relevance, which examines the relevance of contents, methods, facilities and equipment to meet the objectives of training. Then, the programs are evaluated in terms of labour demand relevance, which refers to evaluating performance/training providers/training courses according to predetermined performance criteria. These processes being passed, the training programs are finally accredited by the government as training programs for the unemployed. (Dae Seok Chai, A Work and Learning Dual System Model for Talent Development in South Korea: A Multiple Stakeholder View, 2018)


Germany is widely known for its high-quality vocational education and training (VET) system. The two key features of that system are: (a) firm-based training programs accompanied by a school based component (of one to two days per week), in which apprentices acquire upper secondary general education in core subjects (like math and German) and theoretical knowledge in their training occupation. This duality of practical and theoretical knowledge acquired at the workplace and at vocational schools is (b) accompanied by the private-public duality in the governance structure. (Heike Solga, the German vocational education and training system: Its institutional configuration, strengths, and challenges, 2014)
The German VET system consists of three sectors: the well-known dual system of firm-based training combined with school-based education (apprenticeships); fully qualifying school based vocational education programs (mainly for intermediate-level white-collar, mainly female- occupations in sectors such as health, social work, and media, including nurses, kindergarten teachers, medical assistants), and the sector of prevocational training measures, called the “transitional system.” Both dual and school-based regular VET programs are occupation-specific and fully qualifying; they lead to nationally recognized, occupation specific VET certificates. It is important to note that these two sectors train for different occupations. So the sector in which the training takes place is defined by the occupation one is being trained for. In other words, the two sectors do not serve as alternative training sites for the same occupations in Germany. (Heike Solga, the German vocational education and training system: Its institutional configuration, strengths, and challenges, 2014)
-Training organization and learning venues
Training in the Dual System takes place at two ‘learning venues’, the company that offers and funds the apprenticeship and the part-time vocational school where the apprentice receives theoretical instruction and is taught in general subjects, such as German, Mathematics or Social Studies, in addition to practical training within the firm. The system as a whole does not follow strict regulation from one institution. Therefore, vocational training is only partly a genuine educational task because, at the same time, it represents a function within the economic system as it is the company which provides training placements. The function of the vocational school is normally restricted to up to two days a week. There is general compulsion for apprentices to attend the vocational school up to the age of 18, and a duty on the side of the training company is to release young people for lessons at school as well as for sitting examinations. Teachers and trainers within this system draw their qualifications from different backgrounds. While the personnel responsible for apprenticeship training in firms mostly are recruited from skilled workers and clerks, vocational teachers normally need a Master degree from a university. (Thomas Deissinger, the German dual vocational education and training system as ‘good practice’? 2015)
– Institutional responsibilities
Within the Dual System, the state’s role is clearly defined but extends to both ‘learning venues’. The 16 State Education Acts set up the frame, among other things, for curricula and compulsion. The federal states work out syllabuses for vocational and general subjects for each occupation. The so-called ‘training ordinances’ which underlie these curricula outline the didactical program for in-company training to which companies have to adhere, although flexibility ensures that different technologies and organizational factors are considered. When it comes to working time and working conditions, the Youth Employment Protection Act obliges employers to release young people to attend the vocational school during normal working hours. (Thomas Deissinger, the German dual vocational education and training system as ‘good practice’? 2015)

Important Initiatives

• National Employment Initiative
The National Employment Initiative was established as a result to the needs of young Egyptians to obtain fair employment opportunities after the 2011 revolution. The Egyptian-German business community and the German-Arab Chamber of Industry and Commerce launched the National Employment Initiative with the support of the German International Cooperation Agency on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and under the umbrella of the German Embassy in Cairo.
The National Employment Initiative also organizes various employment forums to provide the suitable employers for many companies, where job seekers are selected to suit the job requirements, and then the human resources representatives make immediate interviews with the job seekers. The initiative also provides various activities and recruitment activities to suit the needs of companies.
The initiative also provides various activities and recruitment activities to suit the needs of companies. The National Employment Initiative has built close partnerships with more than 700 companies and has collected and stored more than 65,000 jobs with the initiative’s online database. The Recruitment Officer determines the appropriate job opportunities for candidates based on their knowledge, interests, priorities and qualifications. One of the most important achievements of the initiative is that the initiative has provided 6000 training opportunities, 7200 job opportunities, and held 140 employment forums.
The initiative has two employment centers under its direct management in Dokki and Helmeyet El-Zaitoun. The initiative provides support to young people so that they can find work. A recruitment officer conducts a personal interview with job seekers and nominates them for a suitable job through the database of more than 70,000 jobs, scheduling interviews with company representatives, the two-day job qualification program for researchers interested in obtaining a job opportunity.
Address: 7 Mossadak St., 7th Floor, Flat 14, Dokki, Giza
Mobile: 01207057206 -01203333883 – 01207015362
Phone: 0233379346
Website: http://nep-egypt.com/en/

• Education for Employment (EFE)
Education for Employment organization provides training programs prepared according to the needs of the labor market, linking them to jobs, while providing them with opportunities to develop their professional skills, build a social network and participate positively in their communities. Education for Employment also works with trainers, employers and families to change the way young people are thought to enter the labor market.
These training programs provide unemployed youth with the professional and professional skills needed by local businesses. After graduation, trainees are linked to jobs in different fields such as: technology, retail sales, construction, nursing and many more. The training focuses on the unemployed young university graduates who are not connected to the labor market and who need significant support to secure a suitable job opportunity.
Since its launch in 2006, Education for Employment has successfully connected more than 66,000 young people to the labor market across the Middle East and North Africa. More than 2,500 companies in the region benefit from the enormous power and skills of graduates of “Education for Employment”, the organization work in many countries, including Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Yemen and the United Arab Emirates.
Address: 7B Saad El Ali St., Floor 2, Dokki, Giza
Phone: 02 332 468 33
Email: info@efe.org

• Professional Development foundation (PDF)
Professional Development foundation PDF was established in November 1998 with the to create an empowered and talented workforce, and to make a capable civil society his main objective to increase economic growth in Egypt and upgrade the social level and enhance the ability to international competition, through identifying needs and setting and implementing multiple training programs, from fresh graduates to executive management. And the number of those obtaining training grants from the organization has reached about one hundred thousand graduates, and the employment rate has reached about 91% of the total number, in addition to the foundation’s participation in introducing a lot of contributions in the field of education development and increasing the efficiency of the administrative system in both public and Private sectors and institutional building of civil society organizations.
Link: http://www.pdf-eg.com/ar/apply-now

• Ministry of communications and Information Technology

Ministry of communications and Information Technology (MCIT) offers different degrees such as: Postgraduate Capacity Building Scholarship (9-Month Professional Diploma): this program is offered as a full-fledged scholarship by MCIT for selected Egyptian University graduates not to exceed three to five years of their graduation date after passing a rigorous set of assessments and personal interviews. The Program offers its students a world-class information and communications technology (ICT) training in more than 25 different technology specializations ranging from database systems to game development, mobile applications development, web developments, mechatronics engineering, multimedia and big data analytics, among several other high-end technology specializations. Due to its high-quality standards, the Program is accredited by several international universities as a pre-masters’ degree. These universities include the University of Nottingham in the UK, the University of Lund in Sweden, the University of Paderborn in Germany, the Oregon Science and Health University in the US and the Dublin Institute of Technology of Ireland. The 9-Month Professional Diploma’s employability rates exceed 80% even before the participant’s completion of the Diploma program; and
– Undergraduate Capacity Building Scholarships (Undergraduate Diploma)
They also offer programs to Undergrads, online sessions and casual sessions.
Link: http://www.mcit.gov.eg/Training/Affiliate/10

• “Catch your Dream” Program:
The “Catch your Dream” program targets male and female graduates of vocational secondary education and school dropouts in the same age group. The program seeks to equip trainees with soft skills with focus on reading and writing skills (Arabic), math skills, basic computer skills, English language education, and communication and interview skills. With funding from GIZ, the program was implemented in Al-Khosos Area in Kaliobia along with other locations in Cairo, Qena and other governorates.
Link: https://www.facebook.com/ketharetdaoudngo/

• Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics
The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) Alexandria provides training programs through the Human Resources Development Center, which targets diverse age groups and backgrounds. The training programs offered by the center are in languages, accounting and statistics, technology and technology-related domains (e.g. ICDL, CiSCO, Graphics, Oracle and Microsoft), in addition to administrative and human resource training programs. Moreover, the center grants access to official certification and provide life and soft skill training. These programs include workplace training, in class-room technical and vocational training and others. The average training programs takes approximately 36 hours for languages, 60 hours for accounting and 120 hours for technology and soft skills.
Link: http://www.capmas.gov.eg/

• Bibliotheca Alexandria: Youth activities program
The Bibliotheca Alexandria (BA) Youth Activities program, targets Egyptian and foreign youth from 16-35 years, aims at channeling the energy of youth for future generations through different activities & projects implemented by youth themselves. The program is divided to four main focus pillars, which are: entrepreneurship, youth culture, Africa and active citizen. The main objectives of the program are building future leaders and developing youth as well as having a positive impact on the lives of our future generations though specific projects; where each and every youth prospect can find an activity within the four main pillars that construct our program.
Link: https://www.facebook.com/BAyouthActivities

• The National Academy for Science and Skills
The National Academy for Science & Skills (NASS) is a people-centered organization specialized in training and continuous development, offering tested channels towards leadership and competitive productivity to both companies and individuals. It is an affiliate of Industrial Development Group (IDG), one of the subsidiaries of the industrial conglomerate Sami Saad Holding (SONID). NASS was established in December 2012 with a goal to support local industries competitiveness with an internationally competitive workforce, and in the process become a force in changing the vocational work brand in the country. By building a competitive and competent and skilled workforce NASS provides value to individuals, companies, industries and non-profit organizations with effective training, skill development and human capacity building solutions
Link: http://nassacademy.com

• National Egyptian Development Association (NEDA):
Better Future for Youth National Egyptian Development Association (NEDA) is an Egyptian nonprofit organization that was established in 2006 by a group of intellectuals and businessmen/ women with the purpose of qualifying youth to fit the requirements of the job market as part of enhancing the role of civil society to contribute to the development of the Egyptian society and address its priority socio-economic issues-particularly unemployment with all its negative impacts on society.
Link: https://www.neda.org.eg/

• Egy Copt: Training for Employment Program
The Social Coptic Foundation for Development (Egy Copt) offers training programs to youth in partnership with other training entities and initiatives in the private sector. Training programs cover different sectors based on an evaluation of market needs, particularly since the organization has a board of business owners. These sectors included car mechanics, mechatronic systems, skills for the construction field, ICT, and many others.
Link: www.egycopt.org

• Alexandria Business Association: Middle East Training Center
Alexandria Business Association (ABA) is a non-governmental, non-for-profit organization based in Alexandria, Egypt, aiming at Economic Development and improving the Business climate through research, advocacy and raising the efficiency of Human Resources. ABA is also an active contributor to community development and manages one of the most successful micro-finance projects. Middle East Training (MET) Center was founded in March 2007 with an objective to serve and fulfill needs of clients and employees of small and micro financing entities through applying best practices in micro financing field as a way to eliminate poverty and develop community. In order to achieve its mission to support and enhance human resources and organizational capabilities, it provides technical help and professional education to civil community organizations for arising standard of living. MET’s professional training programs are provided to originations that work in micro financing filed such as: financial analysis, monitoring and supervision, managerial skills development, fundamentals of credit, strategic planning, product development, institutional business planning, and operational risk management.
Link: http://aba.org.eg/what-we-do/ourprojects/

• Aspire Training Solutions
Aspire is an entrepreneurial training consulting firm committed to delivering transformational solutions using innovative learning methodologies serving the private sector, community-based organizations and youth at large. It provides training workshops (character based and tailored training workshops that guarantee higher levels of participation and learning) and simulations (moving the trainee from the viewer’s seat to someone actively participant, career and life coaching and assessments). It offers many programs for youth such as: the employability skills program that aims to help bridge the gap between the market needs and the educational system. In addition, the foundation of entrepreneurship program that helps the youth with their first steps in starting a business and the technical trainings program that offers trainings on as basics of project management, sales foundation, business correspondence, personal branding and training of trainers (TOT). Aspire’s approach is mainly based on using experiential methods to simulate real-life settings and to apply practical knowledge.
Link: www.aspire.com.eg

• Maadi Youth Training Center: Youth Employment Program
The Maadi Youth Training Center was established in 1955 and is primarily a youth focused organization. The organization offers several services including a youth rehabilitation and recruitment program, the Aghsan El Karma Center for Handicapped Children, a training center for handicrafts, and a recruitment office. The organization’s youth employment program was initiated in 1997. The number of programs conducted annually, and the financial cost differs according to the program itself. Beneficiaries of all programs are expected to contribute no more than 10% of the program’s cost.
Link: https://www.facebook.com/MaadiYouthTraining/

• German Society for International Cooperation: Employment Promotion Program
The German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) is implementing the Employment Promotion Project (EPP) with the objective that technical and vocational education students and unemployed youth are better prepared for the demands of the labor market. The project builds on the experiences and successes of the first phase of EPP (2011-2015) and has duration of five years (2016-2020).
Link: https://www.giz.de/en/worldwide/60462.html

• Sonaa Al Hayah: Human Development Projects for Youth
The intervention seeks to improve the employability of youth by introducing them to soft skills and IT literacy skills. The NGO organizes computer literacy classes for youth with a university degree until the age of 35 years old. Trained youth are introduced to the International Computer Driving License (ICDL) modules. These modules are designed to improve information and communications technology (ICT) and computer skills and include training on word processing, spreadsheets, using databases, presentation and web browsing and communication.

• ILO: Decent Jobs for Egypt’s Young People Tackling the Challenge Together
The purpose of the project is to put the Government of Egypt, actors on the governorate and community level, civil society partners, the private sector, and young people in a better position to create and access decent work opportunities. The core problem that will be tackled through the project is the increasing lack of decent work opportunities for young people (aged 15-29), especially for young women
Link: https://www.ilo.org/africa/technicalcooperation/WCMS_329352/lang–en/index.htm

• Maaan Center Coaching Program
Maaan offers a mix of job training, job placement and skill building activities. Maaan offers assistance on job internship hunting, CV writing skills, interview skills, advice on GMAT and PST testing, and soft skills. Maaan also organizes and participates in job fairs.
Link: https://maaan.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Maaan-Profile-2017.pdf

• AMIDEAST Programs for Skill building
AMIDEAST’s Skills for Success is an employability skills training program developed by AMIDEAST to improve the job entry prospects for high school and university graduates seeking to enter and succeed in the competitive job markets. This new initiative addresses the skills mismatch that underlies the high rates of youth unemployment in the MENA region. It also seeks to foster global communication and contribute to the region’s economic development. Since 2015, AMIDEAST Egypt has partnered with Management Training Corporation (MTC) to support the US Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded workforce improvement and skills enhancement (WISE) project. AMIDEAST is providing technical leadership for the entrepreneurship and work based learning activities undertaken to help technical secondary schools better prepare students to meet labor market needs and providing technical expertise and support for efforts to improve labor market efficiency and improve the overall environment for workforce development.
Link: https://www.amideast.org/egypt/advancing-development-goals/workforce-improvement-skills-enhancementwise-0

• Banque Misr Initiatives (Small, Medium, and Micro Enterprises Financing)

• The Central Bank of Egypt initiative for small and medium enterprises

• Bedaya Center for Enterprise Development and Small and Medium Enterprises Development:

• The Housing and Development Bank initiative to finance small and medium Enterprises

• “Our future is in our hands” initiative
The Ministry of Social Solidarity launched the “Our Future in Our Hands” initiative as one of the Ministry’s initiatives to invest in the capabilities of young people, train and qualify them to participate effectively in public work in general and local work in particular in partnership with the Ministry of Youth and Sports, the Ministry of Local Development.

• Union National Bank initiative for small and medium enterprises

• Bank of Alexandria initiative for small and medium enterprises

• EG Bank initiative for small and medium enterprises

• Orange Initiative

• The National Employment Pact Initiative (NEP)

• YCI “Youth Career Initiative”.

• Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum initiative for a million Arab programmers

Innovative employment  ideas

• Egyptian Franchise Development Association: EFDA
“Franchise” is a commercial form that provides a communication tool to Western technology and international standards, and it is a method that enables donors through their experience and technology to meet the requirements of the changing global market, Franchise projects in Egypt are considered important projects whose success is guaranteed for many who wish to enter the labor market and establish small franchise projects, as they depend on the success and experience of these projects globally, and franchise projects in Egypt in particular are an important link between large, small and medium projects, and the Social Fund For development by financing franchise projects in Egypt, where he funded many franchise projects. A specialized unit has been established to finance small projects operating in the franchise system and negotiate with donor companies in the terms of the concession contract. Franchising is one of the most direct ways to help develop our national economy, and an effective way to market both goods and services.
Website: http://www.efda.org.eg

Enactus platform:
Enactus provides a platform for college students to collaborate with business leaders and academics in developing existing projects and transforming opportunities into real and sustainable progress. It is an innovative idea based on bringing together the parties concerned to empower young people and giving them the opportunity to meet with businessmen and academics to listen to their ideas, approximate points of view, adopt their ideas and achieve them on the ground, allowing for progress and development through pioneering work, and listening to the ideas of all parties in society.
Website: http://www.enactusegypt.org/

Issues and Views

Measures to increase female participation in the labor market
Most of developing and developed countries suffer from modest rate of female participation in economic activity compared to their counterparts for men, and most of female workforce is found at the bottom of economic level of jobs, with low-wages, also the great percentage of female participation found in the informal economy, which means depriving them of many social and economic benefits that they could have when working in the formal economy. Most importantly females face high rates of violence, abuse, and harassment in the workplace. Increasing female employment in the labor market requires continuous work at all levels, macro and sectoral, and requires the availability of binding legislative, legal and institutional frameworks to guarantee this. All the international experiences that were referred to, confirmed that encouraging employment of women is not only dependent on setting laws to protect female rights and the efficiency of their implementation, but also providing various incentives and facilities to the private sector in order to encourage it to provide more opportunities for female participation in employment opportunities.
Source: Dr. Alia Al Mahdi, (2019): Position Paper on Encouraging Female Participation in the Egyptian Labor Market, ENCC, USAID

Effective mechanisms to promote Dual Education in Egypt
The expansion of dual education in Egypt is related to the availability of training opportunities provided by productive and service establishments operating in various economic activities. Despite the fact that almost a quarter of a century has passed since the start of implementing the dual education system, the percentage of the private sector’s interest for participation did not exceed 4% of the total of companies and working organizations in Egypt. And that the concept of “dual education” is not the only form of ” vocational education related to work”, and that its expansion will attract the participation of all types of work organizations, for example the experience of the reciprocal system that was applied with Americana in the areas of preparing and serving fast food. Also the establishment of classes attached to the vocational school and its allocation to the dual education system, in addition to the general technical education in the school, has encountered difficulties in obtaining the necessary approvals from decision-making organizations.
Source: Dr. Mohamed Al-Fateh, (2019): A position paper on finding effective mechanisms to support the dual education system in Egypt, ENCC, USAID

Raising formal employment rates
Several studies confirm the negative influence of increasing informal sector companies on competitiveness indicators. Informal sector has a significant negative impact on GDP growth and a decline in the country’s export capacity, and there is a positive and strong relationship between the increase of the size of the informal sector in employment and enterprises on social justice, because informal contracts does provide job opportunities, but poor and unstable job opportunities, which cannot contribute to push the economic growth enough to create good job opportunities.
Supporting companies to shift towards the formal sector requires policies that maximize the benefit of this transformation in all stages of the company’s work.

Important Links

• International Labor Organization (ILO)
The International Labor Organization is affiliated with the United Nations, an organization that specializes in promoting social justice, human rights, model working conditions and conditions, and workers’ rights. It sets international labor standards in the form of agreements and recommendations.
Organization website: https://www.ilo.org

• Medium and Small Enterprises Platform:
The small projects platform provides all the information, data, services and initiatives provided by government agencies and institutions, NGOs, businessmen’s associations, the private sector, and all supportive and willing parties to provide their broad and fruitful experiences in the field of medium, small, and micro-enterprises, in order to encourage them to enter small and medium-sized enterprises in order to encourage them to enter the small and micro-enterprises in order to encourage them to enter the small and small business Create their own projects to provide a stable job opportunity and have a distinct economic return.
Organization website: https://www.msme.eg/ar/Pages/default.aspx

• Linked in:
LinkedIn includes a large number of companies that help everyone who wishes to develop their professional abilities and skills or find a suitable job, in addition to providing the ability to communicate and discuss the expertise of companies and companies.
Website: https://www.linkedin.com

• Forasna:
The site offers many opportunities available in all fields, as it is one of the leading sites for employment.
Website: https://forasna.com

• Shaghlani
The Shaghlani electronic platform is a main destination for job seekers, especially those with intermediate and technical qualifications and those with disabilities, enabling them to create their own accounts in which they present their qualifications, experiences and skills on the site and obtain direct job opportunities by companies and business owners.
Platform website: https://www.shaghalni.com/ar/

• National Bulletin of the Ministry of Manpower:
The National Employment Bulletin is an important tool for providing many vacancies for different workers and skills, as the Ministry issues a periodical bulletin of the most important jobs available.
Newsletter link: http://www.manpower.gov.eg/NationalBulletin.html

• Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics:
It is the official statistics agency in Egypt that collects, processes, analyzes and publishes all statistical data and population census.
Link: http://www.capmas.gov.eg

• Ministry of Social Solidarity:
Website: http://www.moss.gov.eg/ar-eg/Pages/social-insurance.aspx

• The World Bank:
Website: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS?locations=EG&page=5

• Economic Research Forum (ERF):

• United Nations Development Program:

• Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development:

• International Monetary Fund

Training Centers

• Vocational training centers affiliated with the Ministry of Manpower

• Productivity and Vocational Training Center (Ministry of Trade and Industry)

• SEKEM Initiative

• Industrial Training Council (Ministry of Trade and Industry)

• Al Swidy Technical Academy

• Ghabbour Foundation for Development

• Maareif Foundation:

• Qualifications Development Bank:

• Global Development Gate:

• Siemens Training Academy
Link: www.egtacademy.com

Important reference documents

* Unemployment and employment:- 

*  Female employment:- 

*  Wages:-

*  Job skills:- 

*  Leading businesses

  • Women’s Entrepreneurship Development Assessment (2016, ILO)
  • Entrepreneurship Assessment Report (Sustainable Recycling Industries, 2017)
  • Assessing Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Egypt (Cairo University, 2015)
  • Entrepreneurship in Egypt (Egypt Network for Integrated Development,2015)
  • Strengthening Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development (SEED) (USAID, 2016)